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Income Inequality In Capitalist Democracies

Income Inequality in Capitalist Democracies PDF

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Author: Vicki L. Birchfield
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271034416
Size: 32.39 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 3171


"Examines patterns of income inequality among 16 advanced democracies from the mid 1970s to the early 2000s and explains why some societies have a large and growing divide between the rich and the poor while others, facing similar global economic pressures, maintain more egalitarian income distributions"--Provided by publisher.

Neoliberalism Finance And Income Inequality An Examination Of Affluent Capitalist Democracies

Neoliberalism  Finance  and Income Inequality  an Examination of Affluent Capitalist Democracies PDF

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Author: Allen Hyde
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 75.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Electronic dissertations
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 887


In the aftermath of the Great Recession, the dominance of financial markets and their tendency towards crises have resulted in a small global elite capturing huge income increases while many working families have struggled with stagnating wages, job loss, and increasing poverty. At the same time, neoliberal policies, focusing on market deregulation and the decay of social safety nets, have been touted as the way forward despite their potential negative impacts on workers and the poor. In this dissertation, I examine the effects of neoliberalism and financialization on income inequality and distributional dynamics in affluent capitalist democracies in a variety of ways. Using an updated version of the Comparative Welfare States data set, I analyze 18 OECD nations from 1981 to 2011, a period where both neoliberalism and financialization have become the norm. First, I investigate the ways neoliberalism and financialization affect market-generated (pre-tax and pre-transfer) income inequality, redistribution, and state-mediated (post-tax and post-transfer) income inequality. Second, I focus on how these factors determine the top 1% share of total market-generated income because the 1% have experienced the largest financial gains over the last few decades. Third, I incorporate data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to examine the ways neoliberalism and finance have affected the 90-50 income ratio (comparing the top decile to the median worker), the 50-10 income ratio (comparing the median worker to bottom decile), and the 90-10 income ratio (comparing the top and bottom income deciles). This dissertation contributes to theoretical debates on neoliberalism, financialization, and inequality and provides rigorous empirical testing of current theories. Because the current literature is primarily focused on the United States, this also contributes to the comparative literature on financialization and inequality by focusing more generally on advanced capitalist democracies.

Understanding Declining Voter Turnout In Canada And Other Late Modern Capitalist Democracies

Understanding Declining Voter Turnout in Canada and Other Late modern Capitalist Democracies PDF

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Author: Lois Neva Stewart
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 10.78 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 2524


In this research, I undertake an analysis of the relationship between aggregate voter turnout and income inequality within late-modern capitalist democracies to better understand the problem of declining voter turnout in these societies. I analyse this relationship at the sub-national level using provincial-level Canadian data and at the national level through a sample of twenty-one nations. At both levels, cross-sectional time-series regression analyses of pooled data are applied. Findings are interpreted through a citizenship lens; specifically the work of T.H. Marshall (1950) and Esping-Andersen (1990), as both social and political inclusion are fundamental and constitutive elements of citizenship. Initial findings include a statistically significant negative relationship between income inequality and voter turnout, for both provincial and federal general elections in Canada (1976-2011); this relationship is also found at the national level in a sample of older democracies (1980-2013). The relationship holds using various measures of income inequality including the Gini coefficient and a range of income ratios. However, once time is controlled for in the model this relationship seems to disappear. This suggests a lack of support for the theory that income inequality has a direct impact on participation in the exercise of political power. Rather, a more fundamental factor or factors seem to be causing these societal shifts. I discuss alternate ways of understanding this relationship, including how declining voter turnout and income inequality might be related to the broader socio-political and economic changes associated with economic globalisation and the global spread of neo-liberal fiscal policies. I conclude that to better understand the relationship between voter turnout and income inequality further research is required.

Democratic Capitalism At The Crossroads

Democratic Capitalism at the Crossroads PDF

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Author: Carles Boix
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691216894
Size: 20.15 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 627


An incisive history of the changing relationship between democracy and capitalism The twentieth century witnessed the triumph of democratic capitalism in the industrialized West, with widespread popular support for both free markets and representative elections. Today, that political consensus appears to be breaking down, disrupted by polarization and income inequality, widespread dissatisfaction with democratic institutions, and insurgent populism. Tracing the history of democratic capitalism over the past two centuries, Carles Boix explains how we got here—and where we could be headed. Boix looks at three defining stages of capitalism, each originating in a distinct time and place with its unique political challenges, structure of production and employment, and relationship with democracy. He begins in nineteenth-century Manchester, where factory owners employed unskilled laborers at low wages, generating rampant inequality and a restrictive electoral franchise. He then moves to Detroit in the early 1900s, where the invention of the modern assembly line shifted labor demand to skilled blue-collar workers. Boix shows how growing wages, declining inequality, and an expanding middle class enabled democratic capitalism to flourish. Today, however, the information revolution that began in Silicon Valley in the 1970s is benefitting the highly educated at the expense of the traditional working class, jobs are going offshore, and inequality has risen sharply, making many wonder whether democracy and capitalism are still compatible. Essential reading for these uncertain times, Democratic Capitalism at the Crossroads proposes sensible policy solutions that can help harness the unruly forces of capitalism to preserve democracy and meet the challenges that lie ahead.

Political Capitalism

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Author: Tim Krieger
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 46.60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 26
View: 611


In this contribution we study the relationship between income inequality and economic freedom for a panel of 100 countries for the 1971-2010 period. From a panel causality study we find that income inequality has a negative causal effect on economic freedom, while causation does not run in the opposite direction. We argue that the negative effect of inequality on economic liberty is due to the elite's political power stemming from its disproportionate control over a country's economic resources. The elite uses this power to curtail economic freedom to defend its economic interests by discouraging innovation, competition and protecting its rents. Running a series of dynamic panel estimations, we show that the negative effect of income inequality on economic freedom is robust to different sets of controls and estimation techniques. Finally, we show that the dynamics of the inequality-freedom nexus are to some extent conditional upon a country's political regime. When inequality is low, democracies enjoy comparatively higher levels of economic liberty, in line with the interests of a large middle-class. By contrast, economic freedom is lower in democracies (compared to strongly autocratic regimes with the same income distribution) when inequality is high. We argue that the latter finding corresponds to a system of political capitalism or captured democracy, where a powerful economic elite cooperates with politicians and bureaucrats for their mutual benefit.

Ethics And Political Theory

Ethics and Political Theory PDF

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Author: Joseph Grčić
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761815396
Size: 22.85 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 251
View: 360


In Ethics and Political Theory, Joseph Grcic explores the ways in which the ideas of John Rawls can be implemented to realize the ideals of liberal democracy. Many of the essays evaluate Rawls' discussion of the relationship between liberal democratic equality and economic liberty. Grcic argues that Rawls has not fully considered how differences in income and wealth restrict political equality in Western capitalist democracies. However, Grcic contends that a practical extension of Rawls' theory does suggest ways to reform democratic societies. These include the public financing of all election campaigns and free legal representation. In an attempt to clarify the nature and foundations of political power, Grcic also advocates a new approach to ethics, which focuses on the social functions of moral values rather than individual agency. This book is unique in its attempt to deal with both theoretical and applied questions, making it an important resource for philosophers and those interested in actual political reform.

Opportunity And The Implications For Social Justice Theory

Opportunity and the Implications for Social Justice Theory PDF

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Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 17.89 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Democracy
Languages : en
Pages : 89
View: 6710


In 2004 the American Political Science Association ("APSA") published research exploring whether the rising income inequality in the United States had an effect on political equality. Although the APSA found tremendous evidence of a correlation between income and political power, the APSA nonetheless concluded that the issue could not be conclusively determined without further analysis. The intent of this thesis is to argue the position that economic inequality is heavily implicated in both political equality and equality of opportunity, and to propose a political theory that directly addresses - rather than evades - this issue. A conclusion drawn in this paper is that it is necessary in liberal capitalist environments to place constraints on individual economic liberty for the sake of maintaining some degree of economic equality. I show in this paper that this conclusion is consistent with both the liberal tradition and American political culture. This paper accepts - rather than circumvents - the fundamental principle that income inequality is inevitable in a capitalist democracy as is the ability of money to purchase positions, power and assorted privileges. Therefore, it should be the goal of social justice theory to ensure the gap between the richest and poorest be allowed to be great enough to respect individual choice and responsibility, but not great enough to dampen the opportunities available to those born into the bottom of the economic scale or to permit those born into the top of the economic ladder to exert oppressive power over the rest. In the final chapter I propose four methods of narrowing economic inequality. These include a minimum standard, minimum wage and income tax reform, a tax and cap on wealth and an absolute inheritance cap. These four methods of limiting economic inequality are directed at narrowing, if not eliminating political inequality and inequality of opportunity.

Twenty First Century Inequality Capitalism Piketty Marx And Beyond

Twenty First Century Inequality   Capitalism  Piketty  Marx and Beyond PDF

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Author:
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004357041
Size: 69.25 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 390
View: 6399


Twenty-First Century Inequality & Capitalism: Piketty, Marx and Beyond is a collection of critical essays on the economist’s iconic 2014 book, from the perspective of critical theory, global political economy or public sociology, mostly drawn from the Marxist tradition.

Inequality And The Labyrinths Of Democracy

Inequality and the Labyrinths of Democracy PDF

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Author: Goran Therborn
Publisher: Verso
ISBN: 1788738993
Size: 12.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 240
View: 6211


A global panorama of the historical development and contemporary malaise of liberal democracy, from a renowned social theorist. Barely a century has passed since liberal democracy became established in the majority of advanced capitalist economies. Elsewhere, it is of even more recent vintage. Classical liberalism held universal suffrage a mortal threat to property. So why did it nevertheless come to pass, and how stable today is the marriage between representative government and the continued rule of capital? People on all continents consider inequality a "very big problem". The Davos Economic Forum and the OECD say they are worried. But capitalist democracies don't respond. How has democracy been transformed from a popular demand for social justice to a professional power game? These questions are raised, and answered, in Inequality and the Labyrinths of Democracy. Together with an essay on the current situation, it includes a compact global history of 'The Right to Vote and the Four World Routes to/through Modernity' and two landmark essays from New Left Review, 'The Rule of Capital and the Rise of Democracy' and 'The Travail of Latin American Democracy', collected here in book form for the first time.

Kapital Und Ideologie

Kapital und Ideologie PDF

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Author: Thomas Piketty
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406745725
Size: 36.10 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Fiction
Languages : de
Pages : 1312
View: 1443


Mit dem Weltbestseller "Das Kapital im 21.Jahrhundert" hat Thomas Piketty eines der wichtigsten Bücher unserer Zeit geschrieben. Jetzt legt er mit einem gewaltigen Werk nach: Kapital und Ideologie ist eine so noch niemals geschriebene Globalgeschichte der sozialen Ungleichheit und ihrer Ursachen, eine unnachsichtige Kritik der zeitgenössischen Politik und zugleich der kühne Entwurf eines neuen und gerechteren ökonomischen Systems. Nichts steht geschrieben: Der Kapitalismus ist kein Naturgesetz. Märkte, Profite und Kapital sind von Menschen gemacht. Wie sie funktionieren, hängt von unseren Entscheidungen ab. Das ist der zentrale Gedanke des neuen Buches von Thomas Piketty. Der berühmte Ökonom erforscht darin die Entwicklungen des letzten Jahrtausends, die zu Sklaverei, Leibeigenschaft, Kolonialismus, Kommunismus, Sozialdemokratie und Hyperkapitalismus geführt und das Leben von Milliarden Menschen geformt haben. Seine welthistorische Bestandsaufnahme führt uns weit über Europa und den Westen hinaus bis nach Asien und Afrika und betrachtet die globalen Ungleichheitsregime mit all ihren ganz unterschiedlichen Ursachen und Folgen. Doch diese eindrucksvolle Analyse ist für Thomas Piketty kein Selbstzweck. Er führt uns mit seinen weitreichenden Einsichten und Erkenntnissen hinein in die Krise der Gegenwart. Wenn wir die ökonomischen und politischen Ursachen der Ungleichheit verstanden haben, so Piketty, dann können wir die notwendigen Schritte für eine gerechtere und zukunftsfähige Welt konkret benennen und angehen. Kapital und Ideologie ist das geniale Werk eines der wichtigsten Denker unserer Zeit, eines der Bücher, die unsere Zeit braucht. Es hilft uns nicht nur, die Welt von heute zu verstehen, sondern sie zu verändern.

Inequality And Democratic Politics In East Asia

Inequality and Democratic Politics in East Asia PDF

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Author: Chong-Min Park
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429828314
Size: 22.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 1958


Bringing together scholars of inequality, both inside and outside of Asia, this book examines how the distribution of income has affected political institutions, representation, and behaviour in Asia. Through detailed data analysis, the international team of contributors engages with the existing literature, arguing that the connection between inequality and political institutions is much more complex than has been suggested by previous case studies from outside the region. Instead, this book demonstrates that the micro-level evidence for the correlation between inequality and democracy is mixed and the impact of distributive politics is conditioned not only by institutional but also historical and geopolitical factors. As such, this volume suggests that the median voter theorem and simplified partisan models prove to be ineffectual in accounting for distributive politics in East Asia. Analysing history, structure and context to further understand the politics of inequality in East Asia, this book will be invaluable to students of Asian Politics, as well as inequality, democracy and political economy more widely.

Capitalism Democracy And Welfare

Capitalism  Democracy  and Welfare PDF

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Author: Torben Iversen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521613071
Size: 44.14 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 312
View: 2380


Based on the key idea that social protection in a modern economy, both inside and outside the state, can be understood as protection of specific investments in human capital, Torben Iversen offers a systematic explanation of popular preferences for redistributive spending, the economic role of political parties and electoral systems, and labor market stratification (including gender inequality). Contrary to the popular idea that competition in the global economy undermines international differences in the level of social protection, Iversen argues that these differences are actually made possible by a high international division of labor.

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