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What Was The Berlin Wall

What Was the Berlin Wall  PDF

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Author: Nico Medina
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1524789690
Size: 74.55 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Languages : en
Pages : 112
View: 5872


The Berlin Wall finally came down in 1989. Now readers can find out why it was built in the first place; and what it meant for Berliners living on either side of it. Here's the fascinating story of a city divided. In 1961, overnight a concrete border went up, dividing the city of Berlin into two parts - East and West. . The story of the Berlin Wall holds up a mirror to post-WWII politics and the Cold War Era when the United States and the USSR were enemies, always on the verge of war. The wall meant that no one from Communist East Berlin could travel to West Berlin, a free, democratic area. Of course that didn't stop thousands from trying to breech the wall - more than one hundred of them dying in the attempt. (One East Berliner actually ziplined to freedom!) Author Nico Medina explains the spy-vs-spy politics of the time as well as what has happened since the removal of one of the most divisive landmarks in modern history.

After The Berlin Wall

After the Berlin Wall PDF

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Author: Christopher Hilton
Publisher: The History Press
ISBN: 0752479962
Size: 18.14 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 192
View: 1138


On 7 May 1945, Grand Admiral Donitz, named in Hitler's will as head of state, authorised the unconditional surrender of all German forces to the Allies on the following day. World War II in Europe was at an end. But many of the German people would continue to endure hardships, as both the country and the capital were to be divided between France, the UK and the USA in the west and the USSR in the east. East and West Germany, and East and West Berlin, would remain divided until 1989. By October 1990, however, the two countries were reunited, and the Berlin Reichstag was once again the seat of government. Here, politicians would put East and West back together again, marrying a totalitarian, atheist, communist system with a democratic, Christian, capitalist one. How did this marriage affect the everyday life of ordinary Germans? How did combining two telephone systems, two postal services, hospitals, farm land, property, industry, railways and roads work? How were women's rights, welfare, pensions, trades unions, arts, rents and housing affected? There had been no warning of this marriage and no preparation for it - and no country had ever tried putting two completely opposite systems together before. This is the story of what happened, in the words of the people it happened to - the people's story of an incredible unification.

The Berlin Wall

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Author: Thomas Flemming
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 70.23 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Berlin (Germany)
Languages : en
Pages : 78
View: 1233


Using a wealth of fascinating photographs and documents, this book tells the full story of the Berlin Wall; from the barbed wire barriers of August 1961 to the 12 foot 'Fourth Generation Wall'. It describes the feelings and reactions of the people of both East and West Berlin from the day the wall went up until the events of 9th November 1989, which led to the collapse of what had been the most closely-guarded border in the world.

The Berlin Wall

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Author: Fred Taylor
Publisher: Bloomsbury Paperbacks
ISBN: 9781408802564
Size: 58.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 493
View: 3014


The appearance of a hastily-constructed barbed wire entanglement through the heart of Berlin during the night of 12-13 August 1961 was both dramatic and unexpected. Within days, it had started to metamorphose into a structure that would come to symbolise the brutal insanity of the Cold War- the Berlin Wall. A city of almost four million was cut ruthlessly in two, unleashing a potentially catastrophic East-West crisis and plunging the entire world for the first time into the fear of imminent missile-borne apocalypse. This threat would vanish only when the very people the Wall had been built to imprison, breached it on the historic night of 9 November 1989. Frederick Taylor's The Berlin Wall reveals the strange and chilling story of how the initial barrier system was conceived, then systematically extended, adapted and strengthened over almost thirty years. Patrolled by vicious dogs and by guards on shoot-to-kill orders, the Wall, with its more than 300 towers, became a wired and lethally booby-trapped monument to a world torn apart by fiercely antagonistic ideologies. The Wall had tragic consequences in personal and political terms, affecting the lives of Germans and non-Germans alike in a myriad of cruel, inhuman and occasionally absurd ways. The Berlin Wall is the definitive account of a divided city and its people.

The Berlin Wall

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Author: Norman Gelb
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781728954141
Size: 58.73 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 415
View: 891


'[Berlin] was, at the time, politically turbulent, emotionally charged, and unceasingly eventful. I have sought to capture the drama of that traumatic moment, as well as to tell the story of the Wall, and of the circumstances that led up to and grew from the construction of that gruesome monument to human discord.' Grim and forbidding, the Wall snaked through the city of Berlin like the backdrop to a nightmare. Tears have been shed here, curses uttered, threats snarled, blood spilled, lives snuffed out. The Berlin Wall was an awkward thing, outlandish and unloved, a barrier planted clear across the middle of the largest city between Paris and Moscow. It was the most dramatic example of the political architecture of modern times. Norman Gelb, writing before the Wall came down, tells how the Wall grew from the confusions of the post-war years. How the Soviet Union and the Western powers shared an uneasy occupation of the capital city of their humbled wartime enemy, and how the Berlin Wall set the stage for the Cold War. He describes the grim episodes on the way towards the final division of the city -- the Berlin blockade, the bloody East Berlin workers' uprising, and the mass migration westward of East German refugees through Berlin. He shows how this humiliating exodus, which threatened the stability of the entire Soviet East European empire, could be stopped only by the building of the Berlin Wall. The story is one of power politics and global brinkmanship, of hawks and doves, of brilliant calculation and an intelligence failure of dazzling proportions. It is about the confrontation over Berlin between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev -- two of the most exciting political personalities -- and about how the building of the Wall graduated into a nuclear showdown between the superpowers. Norman Gelb was there on that August night when Berlin was broken in two, and his personal experiences help define the tragedy of the divided city. Though it represented failure to both sides, the Berlin Wall dissected one of the great cities of Europe, enfolding and quarantining the only island of political freedom to survive behind Communist lines. Praise for The Berlin Wall 'A solid documentary history, told in fine style.' - Kirkus Reviews 'nicely evokes the mood of the city and the face-off between Moscow and Washington that many feared might lead to war. He switches deftly between the grand dramas that were played out in Washington and Moscow and the fears and not inconsiderable heroism of the Berliners themselves.' - New York Times Praise for Scramble 'We now have an accurate account It is the first one to get it right'. -- Group Captain Dennis David 'Deftly combining interviews, speeches, news reports, military communications and occasional unobtrusive narrative, Gelb presents a many-sided picture of war that reflects the feeling of the battle' -- New York Times Praise for Dunkirk "Norman Gelb demonstrates in Dunkirk how productive it is to focus on an individual operation or battle ... Dunkirk is both a good adventure read and an instructive case study yielding modern lessons." -- John Lehman, Former Secretary of the Navy, The Wall Street Journal "Norman Gelb finds fresh angles ... Dunkirk stands as an exemplar of the perils of vacillation and the possibilities of action." -- The New York Times Book Review Norman Gelb (b.1929) was born in New York and is the author of seven highly acclaimed books, including Scramble, Dunkirk, and Less Than Glory. He was, for many years, correspondent for the Mutual Broadcasting System, first in Berlin and then in London. He is currently the London correspondent for New Leader magazine.

Behind The Berlin Wall

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Author: Patrick Major
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019924328X
Size: 35.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 321
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On 13 August 1961 eighteen million East Germans awoke to find themselves walled in by an edifice which was to become synonymous with the Cold War: the Berlin Wall. Patrick Major explores how the border closure affected ordinary East Germans, from workers and farmers to teenagers and even party members, 'caught out' by Sunday the Thirteenth.

Berlin Wall

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Author: Hans-Hermann Hertle
Publisher: Ch. Links Verlag
ISBN: 9783861534631
Size: 13.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Berlin Wall, Berlin, Germany, 1961-1989
Languages : en
Pages : 184
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Over 200 previously unpublished photographs document the building and development of the many check points, barbed wire barriers, and alarmed fences which formed the concrete wall around Berlin. This book tells dramatic tales of spectacular escapes and terrible deaths, and explains the history making events surrounding the building and fall of the Wall. Contemporary photographs are contrasted with photographs from the eighties to offer surprising insights into how the former death strip has changed since 1990. Relics of the wall in the current cityscape are prominently illustrated, including remnants of the Wall itself, expanded metal lattice fences, observation towers, barbed wire and concrete posts. Also included are statistics showing the numbers of refugees and victims of the Wall, a guide to the museums and memorials and a summary of the literature and cinema treatment of the Wall, along with a brief chronicle of its history.

Checkpoint Charlie

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Author: Iain MacGregor
Publisher: Scribner
ISBN: 1982100036
Size: 16.13 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 352
View: 1201


A “constantly captivating…well-researched and often moving” (The Wall Street Journal) history of Checkpoint Charlie, the famous military gate on the border of East and West Berlin where the United States confronted the USSR during the Cold War. In the early 1960s, East Germany committed a billion dollars to the creation of the Berlin Wall, an eleven-foot-high barrier that consisted of seventy-nine miles of fencing, 300 watchtowers, 250 guard dog runs, twenty bunkers, and was operated around the clock by guards who shot to kill. Over the next twenty-eight years, at least five thousand people attempt to smash through it, swim across it, tunnel under it, or fly over it. In 1989, the East German leadership buckled in the face of a civil revolt that culminated in half a million East Berliners demanding an end to the ban on free movement. The world’s media flocked to capture the moment which, perhaps more than any other, signaled the end of the Cold War. Checkpoint Charlie had been the epicenter of global conflict for nearly three decades. Now, “in capturing the essence of the old Cold War [MacGregor] may just have helped us to understand a bit more about the new one” (The Times, London)—the mistrust, oppression, paranoia, and fear that gripped the world throughout this period. Checkpoint Charlie is about the nerve-wracking confrontation between the West and USSR, highlighting such important global figures as Eisenhower, Stalin, JFK, Nikita Khrushchev, Mao Zedung, Nixon, Reagan, and other politicians of the period. He also includes never-before-heard interviews with the men who built and dismantled the Wall; children who crossed it; relatives and friends who lost loved ones trying to escape over it; military policemen and soldiers who guarded the checkpoints; CIA, MI6, and Stasi operatives who oversaw operations across its borders; politicians whose ambitions shaped it; journalists who recorded its story; and many more whose living memories contributed to the full story of Checkpoint Charlie.

The Path To The Berlin Wall

The Path to the Berlin Wall PDF

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Author: Manfred Wilke
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782382895
Size: 60.45 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 386
View: 5983


The long path to the Berlin Wall began in 1945, when Josef Stalin instructed the Communist Party to take power in the Soviet occupation zone while the three Western allies secured their areas of influence. When Germany was split into separate states in 1949, Berlin remained divided into four sectors, with West Berlin surrounded by the GDR but lingering as a captivating showcase for Western values and goods. Following a failed Soviet attempt to expel the allies from West Berlin with a blockade in 1948–49, a second crisis ensued from 1958–61, during which the Soviet Union demanded once and for all the withdrawal of the Western powers and the transition of West Berlin to a "Free City." Ultimately Nikita Khrushchev decided to close the border in hopes of halting the overwhelming exodus of East Germans into the West. Tracing this path from a German perspective, Manfred Wilke draws on recently published conversations between Khrushchev and Walter Ulbricht, head of the East German state, in order to reconstruct the coordination process between these two leaders and the events that led to building the Berlin Wall.

Berlin Wall

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Author: Bennet Schulte
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783814801858
Size: 27.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Berlin (Germany)
Languages : de
Pages : 120
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The Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall PDF

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Author: Cindy Mur
Publisher: Greenhaven Press, Incorporated
ISBN: 9780737713510
Size: 65.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Languages : en
Pages : 140
View: 6559


Presents a selection of primary and secondary source articles featuring diverse opinions about the construction and the fall of the Berlin Wall.

The Victims At The Berlin Wall 1961 1989

The Victims at the Berlin Wall 1961 1989 PDF

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Author: Hans-Hermann Hertle
Publisher: Ch. Links Verlag
ISBN: 3861536323
Size: 27.12 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Berlin (Germany)
Languages : en
Pages : 512
View: 7534


In 'The Victims of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989', authors Hans-Hermann Hertle and Maria Nooke reveal the stories of 136 victims of the Berlin Wall.

Kennedy Adenauer And The Making Of The Berlin Wall 1958 1961

Kennedy  Adenauer and the Making of the Berlin Wall  1958 1961 PDF

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Author:
Publisher: Stanford University
ISBN:
Size: 66.20 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 4344


Kennedy, Adenauer and the Making of the Berlin Wall, 1958-1961 The Second Berlin Crisis, which began with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev's threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany in November 1958, has largely been interpreted by foreign policy historians as a conflict between the superpowers, in which the dependent allies - the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR - had almost no influence on the course of events that led to the erection of the Berlin Wall. This interpretation served the political purposes of the governments involved for most of the Cold War. The Kennedy administration as leading government of the Western world could claim to have successfully managed a difficult crisis; the Adenauer administration and the Ulbricht regime could both point to Washington's and Moscow's responsibility for the division of Germany's capital; and Khrushchev, as leading statesman of the Warsaw pact, could finally deliver on some of his promises made to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. However, recent findings suggest that Ulbricht, not Khrushchev, was the driving force behind the decision to close the East Berlin sector. In the course of the first two years of the Kennedy administration, severe problems arose in West German-American relations. It is time to ask how the West German government's interactions with the Kennedy administration influenced the course of the crisis. President Eisenhower had seemingly managed to avoid an escalation of the Berlin crisis from 1958 to late 1960. This came at the cost of increasing pressure for his successor to find a solution. Ten months into the Kennedy administration, Berlin was divided by a wall, and American and Soviet tanks faced each other at Checkpoint Charlie. This dissertation reexamines the interactions between the Western governments, in particular between West Germany and the United States during the Second Berlin Crisis, and shows how these affected the outcome of the crisis. The first chapter serves as an introduction to the historiography of the Berlin Crisis and German-American relations in the period, especially between the Kennedy and Adenauer governments, and defines the pertinent questions; the second chapter provides an outline of the first two years of the crisis and the Eisenhower administration's approach to Adenauer and Berlin, especially as to Western policy on Berlin when the Eisenhower administration handed over the reins; the third to fifth chapters trace the Kennedy administration's and Chancellor Adenauer's interactions during the crisis in 1961 with particular regard to the actual sealing off of West Berlin, and the last chapter finally serves as an overview of the immediate aftermath. I argue that four key assumptions about the Berlin Wall crisis in 1961 can no longer be upheld: 1. The claim that Kennedy had stood firm on Berlin and merely continued the Eisenhower posture on Berlin is wrong. Instead, the Kennedy administration attempted to find new approaches to Berlin and Germany in line with its general revision of US foreign policy. 2. The notion that the closing of the sector border came as a surprise is not supported by the documents. President Kennedy had been informed numerous times that a closing of the sector border could be expected within the year. 3. Adenauer's policy to prevent diplomatic recognition of the GDR contributed to an escalation of Washington's search for alternative policy options, rather than slowing them. The West German election campaign in 1961 further limited the chancellor's willingness to make changes to his foreign policy. The Kennedy administration eventually sought accommodation with Khrushchev without consulting Bonn. 4. Inherent conceptual mistakes in Kennedy's early foreign policy agenda exacerbated the crisis, rather than contributed to its eventual solution. An additional lack of trust between West Germany and the United States complicated and delayed the attempt to find a more coherent,

Die Mauer

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Author: Fred Taylor
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783570551141
Size: 77.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : de
Pages : 576
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Spannend geschriebenes Buch über Vorgeschichte, Bau und Fall der Berliner Mauer.

Berliner Mauerbilder

Berliner Mauerbilder PDF

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Author: Hermann Waldenburg
Publisher: Nicolai Verlag
ISBN: 9783894797195
Size: 57.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Art
Languages : de
Pages : 112
View: 1967


Documents the art of the Berlin Wall.

The Collapse

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Author: Mary Elise Sarotte
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 0465056903
Size: 39.37 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 3840


On the night of November 9, 1989, massive crowds surged toward the Berlin Wall, drawn by an announcement that caught the world by surprise: East Germans could now move freely to the West. The Wall -- infamous symbol of divided Cold War Europe -- seemed to be falling. But the opening of the gates that night was not planned by the East German ruling regime -- nor was it the result of a bargain between either Ronald Reagan or George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. It was an accident. In The Collapse, prize-winning historian Mary Elise Sarotte reveals how a perfect storm of decisions made by daring underground revolutionaries, disgruntled Stasi officers, and dictatorial party bosses sparked an unexpected series of events culminating in the chaotic fall of the Wall. With a novelist's eye for character and detail, she brings to vivid life a story that sweeps across Budapest, Prague, Dresden, and Leipzig and up to the armed checkpoints in Berlin. We meet the revolutionaries Roland Jahn, Aram Radomski, and Siggi Schefke, risking it all to smuggle the truth across the Iron Curtain; the hapless Politburo member GüSchabowski, mistakenly suggesting that the Wall is open to a press conference full of foreign journalists, including NBC's Tom Brokaw; and Stasi officer Harald Jär, holding the fort at the crucial border crossing that night. Soon, Brokaw starts broadcasting live from Berlin's Brandenburg Gate, where the crowds are exulting in the euphoria of newfound freedom -- and the dictators are plotting to restore control. Drawing on new archival sources and dozens of interviews, The Collapse offers the definitive account of the night that brought down the Berlin Wall.

The Berlin Wall And The Intra German Border 1961 89

The Berlin Wall and the Intra German Border 1961 89 PDF

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Author: Gordon L. Rottman
Publisher: Osprey Publishing
ISBN: 9781846031939
Size: 29.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 64
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The Berlin Wall and the Inner-German Border (IGB) were built to halt the flow of refugees from East Germany to the West. From August 13, 1961, over 96 miles of crude fences and more sophisticated walls were erected around West Berlin. Border defenses ran 858 miles from the Baltic to the Czechoslovakian border, cutting villages in two, running through buildings, and intersecting roads and railways. Gordon L Rottman, who became familiar with both sides of the border while posted to Germany, examines the international situations that led to the creation of the Berlin Wall, discussing how the barrier systems functioned and their significance in the Cold War. Covering the erection of the barriers, how they evolved, defensive devices and the role of the checkpoints, this book also describes how ordinary people attempted to overcome these physical and political obstacles in their quest for freedom. Gordon Rottman writes,"In 1980 I found myself in a long-range reconnaissance patrol (LRRP) company. After 2 years of training we were assigned as the V Corps LRRP company: our mission in the event of a Soviet invasion of West Germany was to insert our 21 five-man reconnaissance teams inside East Germany, establish "hides" overlooking autobahns and other highways, and report the movements of the second operational echelon, the follow-on forces behind the initial assault forces. This required us to know a great deal about what it was like inside East Germany. We began an intense study of the IGB, and in the process I was able to visit the border, learn its ways, and find out how to penetrate it."

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